Car And Deep Cycle Battery
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the Myths about Car Batteries?
14.1. MYTH: Storing batteries on a concrete floor will discharge
All lead-acid batteries will naturally self-discharge which can
result in loss of capacity from sulfation. The rate of self-discharge
is most influenced by the temperature of the battery's electrolyte
and the chemistry of the plates. This self-discharge is often mistaken
for concrete floor causing the battery to drain. Some experts believe
that storing car or deep cycle batteries on a colder concrete floor
might actually slow down the self-discharge (leakage) rate because
the floor acts as a heat sink and cools the battery. (Please see
Section 13 for more information
on storing batteries and Section 1
for more information on sulfation.
the early 1900s, when battery cases were made of porous materials such
as tar-lined wood boxes, storing batteries on concrete floor would accelerate
their natural self-discharge due to external leakage. Modern battery
cases are made of polypropylene or hard rubber. These cases are sealed
better, so external leakage-causing discharge is no longer a
problem, provided the top of the battery is clean and free from wet
or dried electrolyte and the same temperature as the floor.
Large differences in temperature could cause electrolyte stratification
within very large batteries (>250 AH) which could accelerate it's internal
"leakage" or self-discharge if the battery is sitting on an extremely
cold concrete, stone or steel floor in a warm room, boat or submarine.
Stirrers or bubblers are often used on these types of large batteries
to keep the electrolyte from stratifying. Undercharging will also cause
electrolyte stratification, which can also result in loss of capacity
14.2. MYTH: Driving a car will fully recharge a battery.
There are a number of factors affecting a vehicle charging system's
ability to recharge a battery, such as how much power and charging voltage
from the alternator is diverted to the battery, how long the power is
available, and the temperature. Generally, idling the engine or short
stop-and-go trips during bad weather or at night will not fully
recharge a car battery or will leave your battery undercharged which
causes sulfation. When a dead battery needs to be recharged, it is best
to use an external battery charger because you could overheat and damage
your vehicle's charging system and your will save a lot of gas and wear
and tear on your engine. Please see Section 5
and Section 9 for more information on
vehicle charging systems and charging.
jump starting is required to start an engine, the battery should be
fully charged by an external charger and then tested for latent damage.
Assuming that a car battery has a 50 amp hour capacity and the vehicle's
charging system is capable of recharging it at 50 amps at highway speeds,
it would take approximately 120 minutes to fully recharge a good battery.
If the battery is frozen, install another fully charged battery until
the original battery can be thawed out, fully recharged and tested or
tow the vehicle to a heated garage. Vehicle charging systems are not
designed to recharge fully discharged batteries and doing so may damage
the stator windings or the diodes (from overheating).
14.3. MYTH: A battery will explode.
Charging a wet lead-acid battery naturally produces hydrogen and oxygen
gasses as electrolysis of the water occurs and needs to occur in well
ventilated areas. While spark retarding vent caps help prevent external
battery explosions, sparks occur when jumping, connecting or disconnecting
charger or battery cables and ignite the gas causing an explosion. From
the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE-HDBK-1084-95, "Precautions must be
routinely practiced to prevent explosions from ignition of the flammable
gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen formed during overcharge of lead-acid
cells. The maximum rate of formation is 0.42 L of hydrogen and 0.21
L of oxygen per ampere-hour overcharge at standard temperature and pressure.
The gas mixture is explosive when hydrogen in air exceeds 4% by volume."
Less common internal explosions usually occur while starting the engine
or using the battery and normally just blow the filler caps or cover
off the battery and splatter electrolyte all over the engine compartment
or battery box.
The most probable cause of internal battery explosions are from a combination
of low electrolyte levels below the plates in the battery, a low resistance
bridge is formed between or across the top of the plates, and a build
up of hydrogen gas in the cell. The low resistive bridge is called "treeing"
between the positive and negative plates. When current flows in the
battery, a spark occurs and ignites the residual gas in one or more
of the cells. A second possible cause is a manufacturing defect in the
weld of one of the plate connecting straps causing a spark igniting
the residual gas. Another source of internal battery explosions are
caused from direct electrical shorts across the battery's terminals.
The battery rapidly over heats form the high current and can explode.
The largest number of internal battery explosions occur in hot
climates due to the loss of water while starting the engine. Most internal
battery explosions could have been prevented if the plates were always
covered with electrolyte. Please see Section 3
for more information on preventive maintenance.
A less common form of internal battery explosion occurs when a dead
short is applied across the battery terminals or the battery is in a
Periodic preventive maintenance (Please see Section 3.),
working on batteries in well-ventilated areas, or using sealed AGM (Ca/Ca)
or Gel Cell (Ca/Ca) type batteries can significantly reduce the possibility
of battery explosions. To neutralize residual battery acid, be sure
to thoroughly wash the engine compartment and the back of the hood with
a solution of one-pound baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) to one gallon
of warm water and rinse thoroughly with water. While not fatal, each
year battery explosions cause thousands of eye and burn injuries from
the electrolyte (battery acid). According to PREVENT BLINDNESS AMERICA,
in 2003 nearly 6,000 motorists suffered serious eye injuries from working
around car batteries. Should a battery explosion
occur and battery electrolyte (battery acid) gets in someone's eyes,
flush them out with any drinkable liquid immediately because
SECONDS count, continue flushing with water for at least 15 minutes,
and seek immediate medical attention.
14.4. MYTH: A battery will lose its charge sitting in storage.
Depending on the type of battery and temperature, batteries have a natural
self-discharge or internal electrochemical "leakage" at a 1% to 60%
rate per month. Over time the battery will become sulfated and fully
discharged which make it more susceptible to freezing. Higher temperatures
will significantly accelerate this process. A battery stored at 95°
F (35° C) will self-discharge twice as fast than one stored at 75°
F (23.9° C). Leaving a battery in a vehicle can increase the discharge
of battery due to the additional parasitic (ignition key-off load),
unless the ground, normally negative, cable is disconnected from the
battery. (Please see Section 15 and
Section 16 for more information on parking
times and sulfation.)
14.5. MYTH: Wet "Maintenance Free" (Ca/Ca) batteries never require maintenance.
The term "Maintenance Free" generally refers to a wet, sealed lead-acid
car and deep cycle batteries with calcium positive and negative plates.
(Please see Section 7.1.3 for more
information on these types of batteries.) In hot
climates, the water is lost due to evaporation caused by high underhood
temperatures and normal charging. Water can also be lost due to excessive
charging voltage or charging currents. Using non-sealed wet Low Maintenance
(Sb/Ca) batteries (with filler caps) is encouraged in hot
climates so distilled, deionized or demineralized water can be added
when this occurs. (Please see Section 3.
for other preventive maintenance procedures that should be performed
on wet "Maintenance Free" (Ca/Ca) batteries.)
14.6. MYTH: Test an alternator by disconnecting the battery with the
A battery acts like a voltage stabilizer or filter to the pulsating
DC produced by the alternator. Disconnecting a battery while the engine
is running could destroy the
sensitive electronic components connected to the electrical system such
as the emission computer, radio, audio system, cell phone, alarm system,
etc., or the charging system, especially with internal voltage regulators,
because the peak voltage can rise to 40 volts or more. In the 1970s,
removing a battery terminal was an accepted practice to test charging
systems of that era. That is not the case today. Static electricity
and spikes from connecting and disconnecting batteries or test equipment
could also damage sensitive electronic components.
14.7. MYTH: Conditioners, aspirins or additives will revive sulfated
Most battery experts agree that there is no evidence that conditioners,
additives or aspirins provide any long-term benefits. Short term
gains are achieved by increasing the acidity (Specific Gravity) of the
battery, which could increase the Amp Hour capacity, but increase the
water consumption and positive grid corrosion and it will also decrease
the overall service life of the battery. After a heavy discharge, allowing
a battery to rest will regain some of its capacity as the electrolyte
has an opportunity to diffuse in the pores of the plates. If the Specific
Gravity of a cell requires adjustment, please see Section 9.14.
This controversy between the additive manufacturers, battery manufacturers,
and independent electrochemists has been going on for over 50 years
as demonstrated in this AD-X2 Battery Additive, From a Trickle to a
Torrent article form the National Institute of Standards and Technology
14.8. MYTH: On really cold days turn
your headlights on to "warm up" the battery up before starting your
While there is no doubt that turning on your headlights will increase
the current flow in a car battery, it also consumes valuable capacity
that could be used to start the cold
engine. Therefore, this is not recommended. For cold
temperatures, externally powered temperature compensated battery "float"
chargers, warmers or blankets, and engine block heaters are highly recommended
if the vehicle can not be parked in a heated garage. AGM (Ca/Ca) and
Ni-Cad batteries will perform better than wet lead-acid batteries in
extremely cold temperatures.
14.9. MYTH: Car batteries last longer in cold
climates than in hot ones.
Car batteries last an average of two thirds as long in hot
climates as cold ones. Heat
kills car batteries, especially sealed Maintenance Free (Ca/Ca) batteries,
and cold reduces the battery's starting
capacity. (Please see Section 11.1 for
more information on increasing battery life.)
14.10. MYTH: Charging cables will start your car.
cigarette lighter charging cable's advertising states "charges weak
batteries in minutes." There is little doubt that charging cable products
will certainly increase the charge in your car battery if you have enough
time and your battery is in good condition. Cigarette lighters are normally
fused at 10 amps, so to be safe they probably limit current to flow
less than the fuse size. Given the diameter of the wire used in the
cable, the amount might be even less.
They work by applying higher voltage from the vehicle with the good
battery to "charge" the bad one. In order to charge a battery the charging
voltage needs to be approximately two volts greater than the battery
voltage to overcome the internal resistance. Now let's assume it is
a hot day and that you need just of
3% of the battery's capacity to start the engine from a 40 amp hour
battery. This means you will need at least 7.5 amps for 10 minutes to
flow from the good battery with the engine idling to the bad
one. Now let's also assume that it is below freezing
and you have left your lights on. You will need at least 50% capacity
or 20 amp hours to start the vehicle. This will take over two hours
to partially charge the dead battery. Using jumper cables with the engine
running at high idle will partially charge a dead battery much faster.
Please see Section 6 for jump starting,
but be sure the battery is not frozen or the case is not
14.11. MYTH: A larger capacity battery will damage my car.
starter motor will only use a fixed amount of current from the battery,
based on the resistance of the motor. A larger Cold Cranking (CCA),
Reserve Capacity (RC) or Amp Hour (AH) capacity battery supplies only
what is required. It will not damage your vehicle; however, using batteries
with higher or lower voltage or physically too high could potentially
14.12. MYTH: Lead-acid batteries have memories.
Lead-acid batteries do not have the "memory effect" mistakenly identified
with first generation Ni-Cad batteries; however, continuous undercharging
will lower the capacity of the battery over time due to the accumulation
of permanent lead-sulfate or "sulfation". Deep discharges below twenty
percent State-of-Charge (approximately 12.0 volts) can damage batteries
and will shorten their service lives.
14.13. MYTH: Bad batteries can harm the charging system or starter.
A bad or weak starting battery causes additional stress on a charging
system, starter motor or starter solenoid. It can cause premature failures
due to compensating for the voltage or current. If you replace a battery,
alternator, voltage regulator or starter, you should test the other
components for damage and repair or replace them as required.
14.14. MYTH: Once formed, batteries will not change polarity.
If a battery is fully discharged and continues to have a load, for example
leaving the headlights on, it is possible for one or more cells to reverse
polarity. When the battery has been recharged with reversed polarity
the polarity can change. This is referred to as "cell reversal". To
change polarity, fully discharge the battery and recharge it with the
14.15. MYTH: Do not use tap water to refill batteries.
Use only distilled, deionized or demineralized water to replace the
lost water in batteries. This is because using tap or reverse osmosis
water from residential systems can produce calcium or magnesium sulfate
crystals that can fill the pores and coat the plates. In other words,
wet batteries will have a longer service life if you do not use tap
water. In an emergency, use rain water because rain water does not contain
calcium or magnesium.